Monthly Archives: September 2016

The Square of Opposition (for logic nerds only!)

The Square of Opposition is a useful tool for representing and understanding the relationships between categorical statements with the same subject and predicate:


The relationships are defined this way:

Contrariety: The statements cannot both be true, but can both be false.
Contradiction: The statements cannot both be true, and cannot both be false.
Subcontrariety: The statements can both be true, but cannot both be false.
Subimplication: If the universal is true, the particular must be true.
Superimplication: If the particular is false, the universal must be false.

Students might be interested to discover that the square of opposition can be created for non-categorical statements as well. Continue reading The Square of Opposition (for logic nerds only!)

Invalidity and truth

Mr. Nance,

I have a question on Intermediate Logic, Test 2, Form B, Problem 4. The question says: “An invalid argument can have true premises and a true conclusion, is this true or false?” The answer book says it’s true but the definition of an invalid argument would prove that statement to be false. Is there a typo or is that correct? Continue reading Invalidity and truth

I Know London is the Capital of France

I teach logic online. In addition to my regular logic students I have several Classical Conversations tutors who audit my logic course. After I finish the lesson and my students leave, the auditors join the class live, turning on camera and mic, and we discuss the lesson. I appreciate these discussions, because I often learn as much from them as they do from me. Continue reading I Know London is the Capital of France